The Sustainable Development Goals and Fundy Biosphere Region

The United Nations’ Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is one of the most important global agreements in recent history. The agenda, with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at its core, is a guide to tackling the world’s most pressing challenges – including ending poverty and bringing economic prosperity, social inclusion, environmental sustainability and peace and good governance to all countries and all people by 2030.

The SDGs cover a wide range of complex social, economic, and environmental challenges and addressing them will require transformations in how societies and economies function and how we interact with our planet. UNESCO Biosphere Reserves have a critical role to play in the implementation of SDGs, utilizing both their mandates, and their connection to both their own region and the worldwide network of Biosphere Reserves can play an important role in SDG implementation and research.

Engaging with the SDGs will also greatly benefit Biosphere Reserves by helping them demonstrate regional impact, capture demand for SDG-related projects, build new partnerships, access new funding streams, and define a Biosphere that is sustainable and responsible within its own region and globally aware.

Biosphere regions


Conservation is one of the central features of the SDGs. Conserving the worlds natural wonders is an essential precondition for social justice and economic development. If we do not achieve the goals related to clean water and sanitation, life below water, life on land, and climate action, the world will fail to achieve the remaining goals.

Conservation also concerns cultural wellbeing, although no specific goal concerns only culture, goals that focus on quality education, sustainable cities, economic growth, gender equality, and sustainable growth will allow for the continuation of local cultural practices within biosphere boundaries.

What can biosphere regions do?

Utilizing the goals and targets that are specifically related to conservation, biosphere regions have an important role to play within their communities. Some specific examples of how biospheres can contribute include:

  • Provide public with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to participate in environmental issues
  • Increase awareness of biodiversity loss
  • Seek out funding and government policies and actions that conserve valuable ecosystems
  • Become role models and educators as stewards of the environment
  • Empower and mobilize young people for future conservation efforts•Habitat stewardship

    Economic Development

The SDGs promote sustained economic growth, higher levels of productivity and technological innovation. Encouraging entrepreneurship and job creation are key to this, as are effective measures to eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. With these targets in mind, the goal is to achieve full and productive employment, and decent work, for all women and men by 2030.

Within biospheres, economic development plays an important role in involving stakeholders in projects and balancing the economic needs of local communities with a high level of protection of the natural environment.

What can Biosphere Regions do?

Utilizing the goals and targets that are specifically related to economic development, biosphere regions have an important role to play within their communities. Some specific examples of how biospheres can contribute include:

  • Ensure all events held are accessible to all
  • Promote economic growth through youth employment, entrepreneurship, and sustainable tourism
  • Assist and promote marginalized communities living within their regions
  • Apply for funding to strengthen the sustainability of the region
  • Ensure the community benefits, and the projects conducted by the biosphere region benefit the community for years to come.

    Climate Action


Climate change presents the single biggest threat to sustainable development everywhere and its widespread, unprecedented impacts disproportionately burden the poorest and most vulnerable. Urgent action to halt climate change and deal with its impacts is integral to successfully achieving all Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).Sustainable Development Goal 13 aims to “take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact”, while acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. Other goals of the Global Agenda also focus on the changing climate and both mitigating effects while also promoting resiliency and general awareness on the topic.

Biosphere regions may already researching climate change within their region, or at the very least are aware of the adverse effects that their communities are facing. Providing knowledge on what the region can expect, developing projects that look into the effects of climate change are an important part of what makes a biosphere a “living lab”

What can biosphere regions do?

Global warming is unequivocal. The average global temperature is rising and the consequences present enormous challenges for humankind. In some biosphere reserves the effects of climate change are already visible. Although climate change extends beyond the borders of the biosphere there are several things a region can do to assist in mitigating effects:

Advocate for local legislation to support mitigation efforts•Support and apply for funding that directly relates to climate change•Provide public with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to understand and address the challenges of climate change•Provide training on native species•Enhance opportunities for capacity building of communities to address challenges

pdfSDG Report 2021.pdf

Biodiversity and protection of ecosystem services

 Our education outreach program, and conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity projects.

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  • Education Programs

    Outreach in the FBR

    Every summer, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve  participates in festivals, markets, and summer camps throughout the biosphere.


    Markets & Festivals

    The Sandpiper Festival along with Sackville, Dieppe, Moncton, Sussex and Harvey were some of the local Farmer's Markets and festivals the FBR team visited this summer. Information was handed out specifically on the Fundy Biosphere Reserve's vision, goals, designation, territory and zoning as well as its various ongoing projects. Along with information, FBR t-shirts and bags can now be seen around the region after being sold at the different markets. The turnouts varied from location to location, but there seemed to always be interest in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve.

    Explorer Program

    The UNESCO Fundy Biosphere Reserve has been visiting day camps and other events throughout the summer looking for young explorers. With the launch of their summer education program, the Fundy Biosphere Explorer, the organization has been talking to children throughout the region about our special and unique environment, and encouraging them to get out there and explore it too.

    Sensibilisation2This Fundy Biosphere Explorer program will introduce children to the UNESCO-designated Fundy Biosphere Reserve and what this special designation means to the region in which they live. Presentations and activities will focus on the unique ecosystems and species found in the region and discuss ways they can act to help protect it. One major outcome is to encourage children to get outside and explore their own backyard in search of biodiversity and the unique species of their biosphere.

    To help these young explorers, part of each day camp presentation every child will receive information about how and where to go exploring in their region. This brochure, along with the Fundy Biosphere Explorer website (, will contain a map of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve with twenty-two locations which showcase the region’s natural wonders as well as information on what to see, and guidelines for exploring.

    As part of being a Fundy Biosphere Explorer, children are asked to take photos, draw pictures or write stories about their adventures in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. To help encourage these young explorers, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve is offering prizes for some of the work submitted by participants. Prizes include t-shirts, backpacks and much more.

    In addition, the Fundy Biosphere Explorer Facebook page has been created to update explorers on upcoming events and bonus activities for them to do in the area. “The Fundy Biosphere Explorer program is a great chance to interact with our youth and encourage them to get outside and explore the natural world around them” say Andrew Spring, Executive Director of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. “We live in a very special place and we want our children to experience it and learn about protecting it for the future”.

    The Fundy Biosphere Explorer program is offered free of charge and in both official languages. If you would like more information on this program, or you would like the Explorer program to visit your camp or organization please contact us at [email protected] .

  • Moose Monitoring in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve

    In partnership with the Maritime College of Forest Technology and Fundy National Park, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve (FBR) has been participating in a project aimed at assessing the moose population through aerial moose surveys in the FBR, and sharing moose population information with the public.

    This year will be the third consecutive year that aerial moose surveys have been conducted in the FBR. Not only will the data collected from these surveys help to inform our understanding of the status of moose in our region, the surveys also provide an important training and capacity building exercise in the FBR. By defining and testing aerial survey protocols, and training the next generation of forest technicians and biologists, we are ensuring that our moose population will be well looked after for many years to come.

    Ensuring the future of moose in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve not only depends on the collection of accurate population data, but also on the interest and support of the public. With funding from the Wildlife Trust Fund, our goal is to engage as many New Brunswickers as possible through our moose education and outreach program. To that end, we give presentations to naturalist and hunting clubs, we visit classrooms, and we write articles for a variety of special and general interest journals. We believe that an informed and engaged public is vital to the persistence of moose in our region. After all, it is our social, political, and economic interests that ultimately decide what a healthy moose population looks like! Check out the information provided in our online brochure, below.



    The ecological role of moose

    Moose are BIG animals; in fact, at 350-400kg on average, they are one of the largest land mammals in North America, second only to the bison by weight. Intuitively, moose are expected to play a significant ecological role in their surrounding environment, by virtue of their huge size. We can consider this role from two perspectives: first, their role in the ecosystem as consumers; and secondly, the role they play as food for other animals. If we consider these two roles together, we can think of moose as being an important 'go between' species that converts energy from plants into a usable form of energy for predators and scavengers. In other words, they move energy through the food web.

    Moose as consumers

    As herbivores, moose consume an incredible amount of plant material throughout their life time. In order to meet their energetic requirements, a single adult moose will eat up to 30kg of plants each day (1). This represents about 10,000 calories per day (1); which is a lot, considering you probably eat somewhere between 1500-2000 calories per day.

    It's not just the quantity of food that moose eat each day that make them important consumers, however; they are also selective eaters, meaning that they prefer to eat certain kinds of plants over others. This is important because their food preferences can shape the distribution and abundance of plant species in the forest ecosystem. In the Acadian forest, moose prefer the tasty young shoots of maple, birch, and pin cherry in the summer and young shoots of balsam fir in the winter (2). The food preferences of moose can reduce- or eliminate- the occurrence of these species throughout their habitat. In this way, moose can directly affect forest regeneration processes and patterns of forest biodiversity (3).

    harwood fed

    Moose as prey

    All of the plant energy that is consumed by moose will eventually work its way up the food chain, as moose themselves are an important food source for predators and scavengers. The greatest predator of moose in the Acadian forest- the wolf- has long been extirpated (locally extinct) in our region; the last wolf was killed in New Brunswick in 1876. Though the wolves are gone, there are black bears and coyotes in the Fundy Biosphere region, and these animals consume moose as both predators and as scavengers (2).

    As predators, black bear are known to kill and eat newly born moose calves. About 10% of black bears in New Brunswick consume young moose in their diet, though the diet of bears varies regionally. For example, around Caraquet, New Brunswick, 80% of bears regularly consume moose calves. Most calves that are eaten by bears are less that 1 week old.

    Coyotes are less important predators of moose when compared to bears. There is little evidence that coyotes hunt and kill moose, though it is possible that young calves or sick individuals are occasionally attacked.

    Coyotes and bears alike will consume moose carcasses opportunistically, and moose that have died from other causes are an important source of food for these animals throughout the year. Besides bear and coyote, moose carcasses provide food for a variety of scavengers in the Acadian forest, including foxes, vultures, crows, marten, and fisher, to name a few.

    coyote at moose carcass

    Defining a 'healthy' moose population

    Since moose play an important role in the ecosystem as both consumers and as food for other animals, it's important for us to maintain a healthy population of moose in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. But what does that mean? How do we decide what a healthy population looks like? Like most good questions, the answer is complicated! There is no magic number; instead, the 'right' number of moose depends on achieving a balance between the biological needs of the population, and our own interests. Since our interests are varied (and sometimes conflicting), and the biological needs of moose populations are poorly understood, defining what a 'healthy' population means is surprisingly difficult.

    To start, it is helpful to ask a question: how many moose do we want? In Southern New Brunswick, we want enough moose to ensure that our children and our children's children will know the thrill of spotting a moose neck deep in a lake. We want enough moose so that hunters can enjoy their sport, and so that moose remain a Canadian cultural icon. On the other hand, we don't want so many moose that they pose a threat to our safety on the roads, or that they reduce the amount of habitat available to other species. Maintaining a healthy moose population is a real balancing act!

    New Brunswick does not have a target density estimate for its moose population. In other provinces like Ontario4, an 'ideal' moose density is calculated between 0.2-0.4 moose/km2. We can use this estimate to guide our management decisions, at least until we generate our own targeted density.

    Moose populations in New Brunswick and the Fundy Biosphere

    Currently, the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) estimates that there are ~30,000 moose in New Brunswick5. This number represents our 'best guess' and is not a true count of the population. In other words, nobody has gone out into the all the woods and bogs in New Brunswick and counted heads. 

    The DNR gets their information primarily from hunters, and the number of moose that they shoot each year. From this data, we can speculate whether the population is increasing or decreasing. The annual moose harvest is set at about 12% of the moose population each year, and therefore the exact number of licenses sold changes each year, based on the previous year's harvest. In order to better manage moose populations throughout their New Brunswick range, the province is divided up into 25 'Wildlife Management Zones' (WMZs). This system allows the DNR to respond to changes in moose populations that may be localized within one region of the province. The primary management tool used by the DNR to respond to changes in the moose population is the annual moose harvest quota.c

    In some WMZs, it is thought that there are too few moose. Symptoms of too few moose in the population include: declining hunter success, declining age of the moose harvested, and an increasing ratio of cows to bulls harvested. The DNR's response to these changes may be to decrease the number of licences sold in the affected areas, or to close the hunting season completely. For example, WMZs 18 and 24 were closed from 1990-1993 before being reopened, while zones 26 and 27 have never been open for moose hunting since the implementation of the WMZ system (5). There are just too few moose to support a recreational hunt in these areas.

    In other zones, there are thought to be too many moose. When the number of car-moose collisions increases, or when moose begin to impose on farm land and crops, the DNR can increase the number of licences in a specific WMZ, to manage for an overabundance of moose. This year for example, in 8 WMZs across the province including those within the Fundy Biosphere, the moose quota has been raised from a 12% harvest rate to 16%, in an attempt to reduce the number of moose-vehicle collisions. A 16% harvest rate is predicted to stop the moose population from increasing in these areas, without causing a population decline.

    moose crossing in fog ii

    Factors that affect moose populations in the Fundy Biosphere

    There are several causes of moose mortality that are important determinants of the overall size and health of the population. Since we don't know the exact number of moose in the province, it is difficult to speculate how many moose are killed each year by any one of these factors. The following is a list of factors that limit moose populations, in order of relative importance:

    Hunting: regulated + unregulated

    MainlandMoosepoachingWEBRegulated hunting is the only source of moose mortality for which we have an accurate estimate of the number of moose killed. Each year, about 12% of the moose population in New Brunswick is allocated to the regulated hunt5. Taken alone, this regulated hunt is not considered to be a significant contributor to moose mortality; however, the sum of all hunted animals (which includes those harvested by DNR regulated hunters, Aboriginal hunters, and poachers) is probably the most significant source of moose mortality in the province.

    Interactions with white tail deer

    While competition for resources between deer and moose may occur, the primary deerconcern over moose-deer interactions is the transmission of a parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (7). The 'brain worm' as it is called, lives without symptom in its native host the deer; when transmitted to moose, P. tenuis causes a variety of symptoms that eventually lead to death. Since upwards of 90% of deer are thought to carry the parasite, there is a high potential for moose to acquire it in areas where moose and deer distributions overlap. Current research at the University of New Brunswick is attempting to quantify moose mortality due to P. tenuis in our region.

    Predation by bearbear at moose carcass

    It is speculated that predation of new born calves by black bears may be an important factor limiting juvenile moose survival. Depending on location, between 10-80% of black bears in this province consume moose calves as a part of their diet. Since we do not have an accurate estimate of the number of bears in the province, it is difficult to speculate exactly how many moose calves are predated each year.

    Vehicle-Moose collisions

    Despite our best efforts, 400-500 moose are reported killed by vehicle collision each moose road sign NByear (6). Though the continued use of highway fencing is thought to have reduced the number of vehicle collisions with moose in some regions, there continue to be a high number of collisions. In addition, only moose that die on the road are recorded; thus moose that are struck and wonder off into the woods before dying are not included in this estimate. In some areas where the number of moose collisions is high, hunting quotas have been increased in hopes of reducing these events.

    Habitat loss and fragmentation

    The effect of habitat change through industrial forestry on moose populations is complex. On one hand, wide spread clear-cutting practises have created ideal foraging habitat for moose; forest regeneration after clear cutting provides moose with access to large quantities of their favorite leafy browse. On the other hand, moose require large tracts of closed canopy forest, to keep cool in the summer, and for shelter in the winter. Lisson SettlementA reduction in old-age forests is thought to have contributed to the decline of moose in mainland Nova Scotia (7). Our industrial forestry practises can indirectly effect moose populations as well, both by increasing human access to moose, and by increasing the frequency of moose-deer interactions. The direction and magnitude of forestry effects on moose populations are largely unknown.

    Collaborative aerial moose surveys in the Fundy Biosphere

    If it seems like the answer to most moose-related questions is "we don't know", you're right! Despite our love of moose, there are many basic questions that remain unanswered. The Fundy Biosphere Reserve is trying to answer at least one good question: how many moose are in the Fundy Biosphere region? Since aerial surveys were last conducted by DNR in our region in 1995, there is a need for a current, up-to-date estimate. aerial survey moose

    Working together with the Maritime College of Forest Technology8, Fundy National Park9, and with funding through the New Brunswick Wildlife Trust Fund10, we have been conducting aerial moose surveys within and around Fundy National Park. These surveys are important for several reasons: they will help us to generate accurate moose density data; they will allow us to test and refine protocol for future aerial moose surveys; and they help to build the research and communication capacity of our future biologists and resource managers. This year (2012-2013) will be our third and final year of aerial moose surveying, and we are eager to get back up in the air this winter.

    Through our aerial surveys, we estimate the moose density in and around Fundy National Park to be approximately 0.174 moose/km2. Given that a 'healthy' population density is around 0.2-0.4 individuals/km2, this estimate might seem a little low; especially since National Parks are supposed to provide protection to wildlife and their habitat. Does this mean that our moose population is unhealthy? In short, no! There are several factors that are important for the interpretation of this density estimate.

    First, since logging activities are prohibited in Fundy National Park, and forest fires have been suppressed for over 60 years, much of the Park is mature forest cover. Mature forest cover provides moose with essential habitat for thermoregulation in both the summer and winter months (7); however, it does not provide the quantity of young, regenerating forage necessary to feed high densities of moose. Given the Park's close proximity to large, industrial clear cuts, it is likely that moose use the Park as a sort of home base: they feed in nearby clear cuts, but return to the dense, old-growth forest when needed. Thus on any given day, the moose density in the Park may be low, but its importance or value as a refuge for the Fundy biosphere's moose population cannot be underestimated. In fact, access to large tracts of mature wilderness like Fundy National Park may be one of the differences between the health of Nova Scotia's and New Brunswick's moose populations.

    The future of moose

    The future of moose in the Fundy biosphere depends on the balance that we strike between our own interests, and the biological (e.g. habitat) needs of the moose population. If we collectively decide that moose are important to us, for their value as a game species, a provincial icon, or simply because we like having them around, then the future of moose looks bright. Public interest fuels political interests in funding research and preserving habitat. By staying informed and by engaging younger generations, we are ensuring the future of our moose.

    For more information

    1. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Moose Biology. Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife Management.

    2. Parker, G. 2003. Status report on the Eastern Moose (Alces alces americana Clinton) in Mainland Nova Scotia. Report prepared for the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    3. Risenhoover, K.L., Maas, S.A. 1987. The influence of moose on the composition and structure of Ilse Royale forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17(5): 357-364.

    4. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Moose Population Objectives Setting Guidelines.

    5. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources. Big Game Harvest Reports 2011. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.

    6. Think Moose. 2011. New Brunswick Department of Transportation and Infrastructure.

    7. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resrouces. 2007. Recovery Plan for Moose (Alces alces Americana) in Mainland Nova Scotia

    8. Maritime College of Forest Technology. 2012.

    9. Fundy National Park. 2012.

    10. New Brunswick Wildlife Trust Fund. 2012.

Celebration of natural and cultural heritage


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  • Fundy Biosphere Trails

    The Fundy Biosphere Trail will build on the UNESCO designation and become a marquee outdoor experience for hikers and bikers, highlighting the natural landscape, culture and history of Fundy Biosphere Reserve.

    The Vision is that this Trail will be a collaborative initiative of the trail organizations and municipalities within the Fundy Biosphere Reserve as well as the provincial Trail Council.

    The Trail will link the communities of St. Martins and Sackville, traveling through the Biosphere Reserve and be designated as TransCanada Trail, but will remain under the jurisdiction of each individual trail council or municipality.

    The Trans Canada Trail is a 21,500-kilometre recreational trail winding its way through every province and territory, from the Atlantic to Pacific to Arctic Oceans. When completed, it will be the world's longest recreational trail, linking close to 1000 communities and over 33 million Canadians. Today almost 70 percent (14,500 kilometres) is developed. Thousands of people are taking to the Trail to walk, hike, cycle, ski, horseback ride, canoe and snowmobile.

  • Surviving the Fundy Footpath

    Surviving the Fundy Footpath is a six-part web documentary series that follows Bruce Persaud, a city slicker from Toronto, with zero camping experience, as he attempts to complete one of Canada's toughest multi-day hikes. This hilarious series will have audiences cheering for the underdog and flirting with the idea of hiking the trail themselves.

    SFF FBBanner 1773x656px

    The Fundy Footpath traverses 60 km of the Fundy Escarpment between St. Martins and Alma, New Brunswick. Descending in and out of 19 steep ravines, it totals more than 3,000 m in elevation. Completing the footpath is like climbing to the peak of Mt. Washington, twice, back to back.

    On the Fundy Footpath, when you’re not scaling the mossy ravines of the fog forest, staring off from a towering cliff top, or sleeping on a barrier beach, you’re exploring the sculpted sea floor of the mega-tidal Bay of Fundy during low tide.

    Physically demanding and surprisingly tough, many hikers are caught off-guard during their first Fundy Footpath expedition. The Fundy Biosphere Reserve, in partnership with the Fundy Hiking Trail Association and VideoBand Productions is thus proud to present an entertaining web doc series that will help would-be Fundy Footpath hikers mentally prepare for their expedition.

    It might sound like a cruel trick to play on someone for their first hike, to take them out on the Fundy Footpath, but thankfully, Bruce was surrounded by a perfect team to teach him everything he needed to know to survive, including Alonzo Leger who built the Fundy Footpath, his son Marc Leger who is the current Fundy Footpath Trail Master, Ben Phillips, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve's Conservation Scientist and filmmaker Craig Norris of VideoBand Productions.

    Test screenings will be held at five locations within the Fundy Biosphere Reserve to give locals a chance to share their thoughts on the video series before it is edited into one feature length adventure documentary and submitted to the Banff Film Festival. If selected, the film will be screened during the 41st Banff Mountain Film Festival and could be selected for the World Tour presented by World Expeditions.

    The videos will eventually be released via the web after touring the film festival circuit.


    SFF Poster May10

    Community Screenings Tour - Test Screenings

    View the Surviving the Fundy Footpath video series at one of our upcoming free test screening events. Please reserve your seat via Eventbrite by clicking on the links below. 

    Fundy Chocolate River Station,
    Cocoa Room
    Wednesday, May 25th, 2016
    7pm to 9pm

    ALMA, NB
    Fundy National Park, Salt & Fir Centre
    Saturday, June 4th, 2016
    7pm to 9pm

    Inspire Festival, Riverfront Park
    Wednesday, June 15th, 2016
    9pm to 10pm

    Adair's Wilderness Lodge
    Saturday, June 25th, 2016
    7pm to 9pm

    Fundy Trail Parkway, Interpretive Centre
    Wednesday, July 6th, 2016
    6pm to 8pm


    Follow us and join-in on the discussions on Facebook:




    The Surviving the Fundy Footpath project has been made possible thanks to funding from Mountain Equipment Co-op, Parks Canada, the New Brunswick Department of Tourism, Heritage and Culture and the Festival international du cinéma francophone en Acadie.

    A big thank you to our community screening partners!

    riverview  fundypark parks canada  inspire  adairs  sentier fundy trail logo

  • Trails & Amazing Places in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve

    Our Amazing Places are the best hiking destinations in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve – they have a rich natural history, breathtaking scenery, and many uncommon characteristics.


    carribou plain1x

    The Fundy Biosphere Reserve consulted with the public to find the best places in the region, 50 of which were chosen as exceptional. These became our Amazing Places, bringing awareness to the important natural landscapes we aim to conserve.

    Each Amazing Place is marked by a smartphone-enabled sign, so that you can access important interpretive information about the site. The Google Earth map application gives you all the geographic information you need to plan your trip. The videos give you a unique perspective on each site and will make you want to explore all of its hidden gems. 

    Explore the Reserve >>

  • Historic Places

    Building on the model of the highly successful Amazing Places project, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve is moving forward with a brand new project called Historic Places of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve.

    Upper Dorchester Covered BridgeUpper Dorchester Covered Bridge

    Building on the model of the highly successful Amazing Places project, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve is moving forward with a brand new project called Historic Places of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve.



    The presence of many different groups, including First Nations peoples and both Acadian and English settlers, has given the region a rich history and diverse cultural heritage which lends itself perfectly to such a project.

    The FBR recognizes that conservation of the history and cultural heritage of communities within the FBR is equally as important as conservation of the natural world.

    The central objective of the Historic Places project will be to link significant historic events and stories with the places where they took place and make these fascinating narratives accessible to the public.

    Acadian Wave breakAcadian wavebreak near the Cumberland Basin



    Shipyard Park HarveyShipyard Park in Harvey

    How the Project Got Started

    To start the project, our staff put together a list of historically significant places within the FBR based on the input and recommendations of local museums, historic societies, heritage trusts, and other similar organizations. After careful consideration, the list of recommendations was pared down to feature a manageable number of historic sites in the FBR with great historic and/or cultural value. Our staff conducted detailed research and important information about the location, historic and/or cultural significance was compiled. We are now looking at making these materials accessible into an interpretive resource that can be accessed via the web, smartphone-accessible QR codes, brochures, and other easily accessed sources.

    The Historic Places project will be closely modeled after our already highly successful Amazing Places project. We will also be compiling information about each historic place in a manner similar to the New Brunswick Historic Places Register.



    Project Goals

    Through the process of completing the Historic Places project, we hope to identify some sites that are historically significant but that visitors or residents often miss due to poor promotion. By doing so, we hope to enhance the present offerings of museums and heritage groups in the area.

    Some examples of historic places we are profiling with the Historic Places project include covered bridges, railways, wharves or shipyards, abandoned mines and quarries, dykelands, logging mills and dams, churches, commercial buildings, and even the sites of demolished or collapse historic structures. These various sites and the history behind them shaped the culture of our region and its people into what they are today.

    Next Steps

    Although we have begun to work on the Historic Places project, more funding is necessary to be able to see it to completion.

    We are also always accepting suggestions from the public of potential historic sites within the FBR. If you would like to make a suggestion regarding this project please feel free to contact us. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter and visit our website regularly for updates to come about the project.


Sustainable relations between people and nature


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  • Local Knowledge and Climate Change

    Why do jokes about the Maritimes always involve changeable weather? What happens to important local weather knowledge as people age? The Fundy Biosphere Reserve knew that the climate of the region, and the people who worked outside all of their lives, had a story to tell.


    For the past few years, the FBR has been leading important work on Climate Change, gathering and analyzing data on how the climate has evolved and how it will impact our region as it continues to change.

    Why do jokes about the Maritimes always involve changeable weather? What happens to important local weather knowledge as people age? The Fundy Biosphere Reserve knew that the climate of the region, and the people who worked outside all of their lives, had a story to tell.

    For the past few years, the FBR has been leading important work on Climate Change, gathering and analyzing data on how the climate has evolved and how it will impact our region as it continues to change.

    From thought-provoking videos on the realities of climate change in our regions and how citizens can play a role in shaping our future, to forests conservation research, our work aims to produce public education materials and important capacity-building resources for our communities, so that they are better equipped to plan for and face climate change.

    Climate Change in Atlantic Canada Videos 
    Across Atlantic Canada, coastlines and communities are being adversely affected by climate change, and as temperature, sea level and storm surge increase, adaptation initiatives are being planned and implemented to navigate the impending storm. Listen to their story.

    The Whitney Journals Documentary Video 
    All over the Fundy Biosphere, people can become “citizen scientists” by regularly recording nature observations, like the Sussex-based Whitney family did for nearly 40 years on their farm. The FBR analyzes this data in order to chronicling the effects of climate change on the local environment. Learn more.

    Forests of the Future in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve 
    By planning ahead for climate change and planting tree species that have a better chance to thrive, we can help ensure that our urban and rural forests remain healthy. Learn more about how the FBR is working to create climate change resilient forest corridors throughout the reserve and encouraging municipalities, towns and landowners to plant tree species that will be better suited to our changing climate.

  • Climate Change Education

    Climate Change Education

    Local Climate Knowledge into the
    New Brunswick Education Curriculum


    Videos and Lesson Plans




    Climate Change: Climate

    This video explores the nature of climate change
    and its effects on the Atlantic region of Canada.

    Lesson plan (PDF)




    Climate Change:
    Newfoundland and Labrador

    Explore the ways in which climate change is
    affecting the people of Newfoundland and Labrador,
    and how communities are taking steps to mitigate
    and adapt to the challenge.

    Lesson plan (PDF)




    Climate Change: Mitigation

    Explore the ways in which communities in Atlantic Canada
    are taking steps to mitigate the effects of climate change.

    Lesson plan (PDF)





    Climate Change: Nova Scotia


    Communities across Nova Scotia are being
    affected by extreme weather and environmental change.

    This video explores the ways in which mitigation
    and adaptation are key to navigating the future.

    Lesson plan (PDF)




    Climate Change: Prince Edward Island

    Explore the ways in which climate change is affecting the
    people of Prince Edward Island, and how communities
    are taking steps to mitigate and adapt to the challenge.

    Lesson plan (PDF)





    Climate Change: Adaptation


    This short film gives an overview of adaptation strategies i
    n the Atlantic region in the face of drastic environmental change.

    Lesson plan (PDF)




    Climate Change: New Brunswick


    Communities across New Brunswick are being affected by
    extreme weather and environmental change.

    This video explores the ways in which mitigation and adaptation
    are key to navigating the future.

    Lesson plan (PDF)



    Climate Change: The Whitney Journals

    This documentary short explores 35 years of weather journals recorded by the Whitneys in Kierstead Mtn., New Brunswick, Canada. Specifically we examine how some of the bio-indicators, such as spring peepers, robins, lilacs and trees, have been responding to climate change. These examples are illustrated and animated to offer an engaging perspective on locally sourced citizen science.
    Directed by Ben Phillips & Craig Norris

    Lesson plan (PDF)


    Book a Presentation and Training Session in Your School

    Schools can request a free presentation and training session for their teachers by Fundy Biosphere Reserve staff on how to use these education materials in their classrooms. Contact us info(at)

    About this Project

    Students in New Brunswick classrooms tend to learn about complex or major scientific events in the context of the United States or in the tropical rainforests of Brazil. The Fundy Biosphere Reserve wants to change that.

    We’ve thus adapted our The Whitney Journals film, along with a series of short documentary videos about climate change in Atlantic Canada produced with Dr. Ian Mauro, to be used in middle and high school classrooms to give students an opportunity to learn about climate change from experts and locals with decades of first-hand experience.

    The goal was to create a resource that teachers can use, with engaging lesson plans and materials, to foster environmental awareness and scientific literacy among their students.

    While phase I of the project helped us determine where within the New Brunswick curricula - in both English and French - our materials were best suited and how to effectively deliver them, phase II allowed us to take this information and translate it into fully written lesson plans and materials for teachers to use with very little preparation needed. Since the fall 2015, we entered phase 3 of the project, dissimenating the materials as widely as possible througout schools in the province - as well as throughout the Atlantic Provinces

    This project was made possible thanks to financial support from the Environmental Trust Fund


  • Sustainable Tourism

    Sustainable Tourism has been a key project for the Fundy Biosphere Reserve as tourism is a major industry in the area, and enhancing the industry to make it both economically and environmentally sustainable fits well with the mission of the FBR.

    sust tourism

    We have delivered several projects in the past relating to sustainable tourism in the regions.

  • Development Forum for Municipalities

    Municipalities are increasingly developing green plans and sustainable development plans with the aim of decreasing the ecological footprint of their communities. This is due, in part, to regulatory obligations as large amounts of infrastructure and development funding is, or will be tied to such plans. Also, more and more citizens are requesting green plans and putting pressure on municipalities to improve their environmental performance. Therefore, there is a need for a forum that would allow municipalities to share ideas, discuss new and innovative projects and learn more about the importance of sustainability plans, on local and regional scales.

    For this project, the FBR is building on the outcomes of a recent conference called Adaptations and Actions, held in February of 2009. This conference identified the need for municipalities to develop sustainability plans, and highlighting the lack of information provided to the municipalities on the contents of these plans. The objective of the Sustainable Development Forum for Municipalities is to provide the opportunity for municipalities in the FBR to learn about sustainability planning.



    The Sustainable Development Forum for Municipalities was a one day event reserved for municipal governments and community planners within the FBR to learn about Integrated Community Sustainability Planning. Each municipality had the opportunity to present and discuss their own sustainable development initiatives, and learn from others best practices. Through presentations, discussions and networking activities, it was hoped that municipalities with common objectives would generate new ideas and launch new projects together with shared resources. One of the main outcomes of this exercise was the building of a consensus between municipalities that more resources need to become available as well as information pertaining to the obtaining the access to funding.

    Denny Richard also presented “Thinking Green”, a presentation on how the town of Bouctouche conceptualized a series of environmental initiatives within their communities. Mr. Richard spoke of challenges, strengths and weaknesses as well as the general steps needed to build such plans. He also explained several of the initiatives taking place in Bouctouche in addition to demonstrating where the town was headed in terms of sustainable development.

    Kuli Malhotra from Antigonish Sustainable Development also provided a presentation on the process of implementation as well as available funding sources to conduct initial studies. Some discussions on the importance of a regional approach for sustainability plans occurred, as the activities in one municipality will have significant impacts on the surrounding areas.

    All in all, the day was a success. Many issues and concerns were highlighted and the most pressing problems were established. The day ended with a general feedback that the FBR needs to provide more resources to the communities in the biosphere region as well as the methodology on how to get funding for Intergrated Community Sustainable Planning and other sustainable development initiatives.


    1. Sharing of knowledge, experiences on best practices.
    2. Provide municipalities with information on sustainability plans.
    3. Discuss regional cooperation in sustainability plans.


    The Sustainable Development Forum for Municipalities was held:
    June 25th, 2009 starting at 9:00 AM and ending at 4:00 PM.
    Memramcook Institute,Memramcook, NB.


    • Yves Gagnon, Chair – K.C. Irving Chair in Sustainable Development, Université de Moncton
    • Andrew Spring, Executive Director, FBR
    • Paul Bogaard, Vice Chair, Fundy Biosphere Reserve
    • Yolande LeBlanc, Memramcook
    • Tania Kotyk, Project Assistant, FBR
    • Heather Hawker, City of Moncton


    Paul Bogaard, Vice Chair, Fundy Biosphere Reserve


    The Sustainable Development Forum for Municipalities was reserved to the 14 municipalities in the FBR, represented by the mayor (or other elected official) and/or an employee (responsible for the environment).



    • City of Dieppe
    • City of Moncton
    • City of Riverview
    • Fort Folly First Nations
    • Town of Sackville
    • Town of Sussex
    • Village of Alma
    • Village of Port Elgin
    • Village of Dorchester
    • Village of Hillsborough
    • Village of Memramcook
    • Village of Petitcodiac
    • Village of Riverside Albert
    • Village of Sussex Corner
    • Village of St Martins
    • Village of Elgin
    • Village of Salisbury

    Additionally, other New Brunswick Agencies, local Community Economic Development Agencies, and other stakeholder groups were invited to attend.

  • NGO Forum


    The mandate of the Fundy Biosphere Reserve (FBR) is to enhance community sustainability and resource decision-making capacity through education, outreach, environmental and socio-economic monitoring and research. The overall goal is the conservation of the cultural heritage and natural resources of the NB upper Bay of Fundy region while helping to reconcile changing human-environmental issues and concerns. In order to achieve this, the FBR works with a cross-sectional diversity of stakeholders in the region to promote sustainable development and the conservation of biodiversity through its outreach and communication activities.


    NGOs play an important role in our region by promoting awareness, educating the public and conducting research on a wide range of environmental, economic and social issues facing our communities. A large quantity of information and resources are made available by these organisations through various outlets such as public meetings, seminars, reports, brochures and websites. Such information, resources and knowledge could be used more efficiently through partnerships and collaborative projects between NGOs. The Sustainable Development Forum for NGOs is a one day event reserved for NGOs who wish to briefly present their projects and activities to other organisations, while at the same time learning about other’s activities. The goal is to share knowledge and ideas with similar organisations in the FBR region. Through discussions and networking activities, it is hoped that organisations with common objectives or initiatives will generate new ideas and launch new projects together, with shared resources.


    1. Enhancement of dialogue between NGOs with a mandate aligned with the objectives of the FBR.
    2. Sharing of knowledge, experiences and operating practices.
    3. Be a catalyst for new collaboration and synergies on common ideas and projects.
  • Local Food

    Local-FoodThe Local Food Project centers around our Local Food Forum that took place March 21st, 2010. This forum was a one day event that brought together farmers, restaurants, tourism operators, NGO's and other interest groups to discuss the local food issue. This Forum had a great turn out, and brought excellent discussion to the table.

    The Local Food Forum aimed to educate the attendees on Local Food issues, such as access, education, distribution, food security as well as what initiatives that are taking place in our communities plus what still needs to be done. Another discussion included ideas on what could be done to promote and distribute local food throughout the Fundy Biosphere Reserve. The presenters of the Forum shared knowledge and promising practices regarding activities supporting our local food system, and addressed strategies and opportunities surrounding local food.

  • Climate Change in Atlantic Canda

    Across Atlantic Canada, coastlines and communities are being adversely affected by climate change, and as temperature, sea level and storm surge increase, adaptation initiatives are being planned and implemented to navigate the impending storm. This is their story.


    In 2011, with funding from the NB Environmental Trust Fund, FBR Conservation Program Manager Ben Phillips began to interview local climate knowledge-holders, such as beekeepers, farmers, snowplow drivers, fishers, gardeners, and First Nations elders. The project also included some climate data  analysis to explain these local trends in our weather, such as temperature highs and lows, snow fall and melt dates, number of drought days, and rain event amounts and duration.

    The project rapidly evolved into an exciting collaboration between the FBR and Dr. Ian Mauro (previously the Canada Research Chair in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change at Mount Allison University, now Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Winnipeg).

    Ben’s interviews were documented by Dr. Ian Mauro’s multimedia research team, along with other weather and climate related content from Atlantic Canada. Working with Mauro’s team, a year’s worth of video footage has been carefully assembled into short documentary films, which aim to increase awareness about the real world experiences of coastal communities, and how they are on the front lines of climate change and responding to it.

  • Forests of the Future

    Forest of the Future Logo

    New! Planting Guide for a Climate Change Resilient Forest

    By planning ahead for climate change and planting tree species that have a better chance to thrive, we can help ensure that there will be healthy and beautiful trees in our neighborhoods and parks as well as in the forest, to be enjoyed by generations to come. If you would like to plant trees on your land, please take a look at our informative pamphlet below


    Forest of the Future in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve  
    Planting Guide for a Climate Change Resilient Forest
    (PDF version - for viewing online)
    (PDF version - for printing your own pamphlet)



    There are also many great resources on how to plant trees and how to ensure trees remain healthy and thrive on the Trees Canada website.

    Our Work - Climate Change Resilient Forests

    Since 2013, the Fundy Biosphere Reserve has shifted its climate change work to focus on conservation and ensuring forest health in our region.

    Through our Climate Change Resilient Forest Corridors Project, we have identified climate change resilient tree species and mapped out where those species are currently located within the Biosphere Reserve.

    In the summer of 2014, we planted 2,500 climate resilient trees in key areas in the reserve to create forest corridors between the Reserve's protected areas. These corridors will allow wildlife to pass through more easily and also ensure that the forests continue to thrive as the climate changes.

    ForestsoftheFuture 1

    We also hosted free outdoor workshops, where we presented our research and connected with the public, encouraging communities and local landowners to plant climate resilient tree species on their lands.


    We continue to work closely with communities within the FBR. We’ve hosted open houses and other events to share climate change adaptation expertise and materials and we continue to disseminate our research findings. Many communities in the FBR are developing Green Plans or Integrated Community Sustainability Plans (ICSPs), and can benefit from more information about climate change adaptation planning. 

    Research report and maps - Climate Change Resiliency in Tree Species in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve

    Our report provides details of how our research on climate change resiliency in tree species within the Fundy Biosphere Reserve was carried out and gives all the project results. Tables and figures give important analysis of the results, including non-native species from southern Maine. A range of results for different climate change scenarios and various time periods are provided. Most importantly, the context of the recommendations are outlined.

    Read the report here: Climate Change Resiliency in Tree Species in the Fundy Biosphere Reserve Region

    Click on the maps below to enlarge and/or download. 

    This "Resiliency Category Map" (below) illustrates the overall climate change resiliency score for each forest stand. Although there are five categories, only the categories of "prosper", "persevere", and "decline" are displayed here because we have so little forest in the extreme categories. Keep in mind this map provides results for a moderate climate change scenario (RCP 4.5) during the 2041-2070 period. Do you see what you expected?

    FBRlayout resiliency group

    This "Resiliency Percentage Map" (below) exhibits the individual forest stand percentages of trees that fall into the top two climate change resiliency categories of "proliferate" and "persevere." This map also provides results for a moderate climate change scenario (RCP 4.5) during the 2041-2070 period. Notice that the most resilient forest matches the other map with the most highly resilient blue shaded forests on top of the Caledonia Highlands.

    FBRlayout pct resilient

    This "Forest Corridors Map" (below) presents the areas where wildlife corridors would best be placed so they stay forested and healthy into the future. These corridors would allow wildlife to shift territories, migrate and transition to more appropriate climatic zones as the climate changes. Our forest resiliency layer was combined with a landscape resiliency layer as the basis for corridor placement, connecting protected areas and areas outside the FBR. This is a first draft of the corridor map and we are looking for your feedback and how we can incorporate "working lands" into an effective wildlife corridor system. Do you own land in these proposed corridors? What kind of wildlife do you see there?

    FBR Corridor Map v5

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